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Digestive system
Digestive system


Upper gastrointestinal system
Upper gastrointestinal system


Achalasia - series
Achalasia - series


Achalasia

Definition:

Achalasia is a disorder of the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (esophagus), which affects the ability of the esophagus to move food toward the stomach.



Alternative Names:

Esophageal achalasia



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

A muscular ring at the point where the esophagus and stomach come together (lower esophageal sphincter) normally relaxes during swallowing. In people with achalasia, this muscle ring does not relax as well. The reason for this problem is damage to the nerves of the esophagus.

Cancer of the esophagus or upper stomach and a parasite infection that causes Chagas disease may have symptoms like those of achalasia.

Achalasia is a rare disorder. It may occur at any age, but is most common in middle-aged or older adults. This problem may be inherited in some people.



Symptoms:
  • Backflow (regurgitation) of food
  • Chest pain , which may increase after eating or may be felt in the back, neck, and arms
  • Cough
  • Difficulty swallowing liquids and solids
  • Heartburn
  • Unintentional weight loss


Signs and tests:

Physical examination may show signs of anemia or malnutrition .

Tests include:



Treatment:

The approach to treatment is to reduce the pressure at the lower esophageal sphincter. Therapy may involve:

  • Injection with botulinum toxin (Botox). This may help relax the sphincter muscles, but any benefit wears off within a matter of weeks or months.
  • Medications, such as long-acting nitrates or calcium channel blockers, which can be used to relax the lower esophagus sphincter
  • Surgery (called an esophagomyotomy), which may be needed to decrease the pressure in the lower sphincter
  • Widening (dilation) of the esophagus at the location of the narrowing (done during esophagogastroduodenoscopy)

Your doctor can help you decide which treatment is best for your situation.



Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

The outcomes of surgery and nonsurgical treatments are similar. Sometimes more than one treatment is necessary.



Complications:
  • Backflow (regurgitation) of acid or food from the stomach into the esophagus (reflux)
  • Breathing food contents into the lungs, which can cause pneumonia
  • Tearing (perforation) of the esophagus


Calling your health care provider:

Call your health care provider if:

  • You have difficulty swallowing or painful swallowing
  • Your symptoms continue even with treatment for achalasia


Prevention:

Many of the causes of achalasia are not preventable. However, treatment of the disorder may help to prevent complications.



References:

Orlando RC. Diseases of the esophagus. In: Goldman L, Ausiello DA, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 140.




Review Date: 1/20/2010
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

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